Sunday, January 31, 2016

Harnessing permanent magnets’ power.

This article relates to energy engineering and more particularly to the alternative energy technology of getting power from the repulsive/attractive force of permanent magnets with no other input.

Magnetism, like gravity and atomic charge, is one of the basic forces of nature. Permanent magnets generate a force of attraction or repulsion similar to the force generated by the positive and negative charges on protons and electrons.  The magnetic force has an effect on other natural magnets and substances such as steel attracts magnets. The magnets and these substances feel the magnetic force as a push away from the magnet or a pull towards the magnet. The spin of electrons generates this force and can cause a responsive object or magnet itself to move.

There were many attempts to convert the repulsive/attractive force of permanent magnets into rotational movement and build a magnet motor.  We can see some of them in operation on YouTube.

The invention International Publication Number WO 2006/045333 A1 provides a magnet repulsive motor, which comprises a shaft rotatable about its longitudinal axis, the first set of magnets arranged about the shaft in a rotor for rotation with the shaft, and a second set of magnets arranged in a stator surrounding the rotor. The cylindrical magnets with axial magnetization angled at an acute angle relative to the tangent to the circumference of the rotor and to the inner circumference of the stator.  The rotor and stator magnets also have a special arrangement:
The device International Publication Number WO 2009/019001 A2 comprises a rotor and a stator disposed coaxially to an output shaft. The rotor comprises one or more first magnet sequences and the stator one or more second magnet sequences. The first and second magnet sequences each comprise two or more dipole magnets, the arrangement and the orientation of which may vary.   A prototype demonstrated at the 41st International Exhibition of Inventions in Geneva (April 10 - 12, 2013), it had around 1200 magnets and powered a fan:

Unfortunately, these magnet motors have disadvantages: they require force to start running, they do not run under a real load and they stop running unexpectedly. 

The invention International Publication Number WO 2009/088144 A1 discloses an engine capable of obtaining a reciprocation operation by using only a magnetic force of permanent magnets even when a supply of an electric power disconnected except for the energy, which makes an initial engine start.  In this invention, a rotation drum member and a crankshaft have a plurality of permanent magnets with their alternatively arranged poles. They installed in a frame, which supports an apparatus. When the rotation drum member rotates, repulsive force and attraction force alternatively generates between the permanent magnets of the front end of the piston and the permanent magnets of the rotation drum member, so the piston reciprocates, and driving force obtains rotating the crankshaft.  The engine includes an electric power supply and cannot start running without it. A video of working magnet engine, created in Shinyeon Energy Research Centre of South Korea posted on January 4, 2010, YouTube: .

We know how powerful modern permanent magnets are. Why are mentioned motors and engine not powerful? 

Magnet motors WO 2006/045333 A1 and WO 2009/019001 A2 created under the supposition that special orientation and special location of the permanent magnets on the rotor and stator will create a strong tangential component of force, which generates the rotor torque in repulsive mode. This does not happen. A magnetic force just as a gravity force is greater in the direction of the shortest distance between magnets. That is why the normal component of the rotational force, which acts in a radial direction of a rotor and does not affect the torque, is much stronger than tangential component and we can see it is hard to move rotor if a magnet motor on standby. It magnetically fixed in a certain position by the normal component of force. The tangential components of magnetic force in these motors are so weak that they cannot operate under a real working load (1200 strong Neodymium magnets can power only a small fan).  

Magnet engine WO 2009/088144 A1 is not powerful too. It is because the work of the magnetic force during the attraction of one magnet to another as they approach when the piston reciprocates is almost equal to the work of the magnetic force tending to stop the magnet when it is moving away from the rotation drum member and vice versa. The work of the magnetic force during the repulsion of one magnets by another, which tends to stop the magnet as it approaches when the piston reciprocates is almost equal to the work of the magnetic force tending to push the magnet when it is moving away from the rotation drum. 
Similar processes take place in magnet motors WO 2006/045333 A1 and WO 2009/019001 A2 because magnets in the rotor and stator sometimes approach each other and sometimes move away from each other when the motor operates. These motors operate because of a small difference in work of magnetic force when magnets approach and when they move away. This difference is a result of a slightly different way of their approaching each other and moving away because of their spatial orientation changes during the movement. To make this difference greater inventors change the arrangement and orientation of magnets in rotor and stator during experiments until the rotor begins to rotate satisfactorily but they cannot get power from such engineering solutions.
A radical solution would be to create a new method for converting the magnetic force into rotary motion and a different mechanism for carrying out this conversion. It is advisable to situate rotor and stator magnets face to face and keep a distance between them permanent during motor operation.  Whereupon the shortest distance in operating mode will give the engine the greatest power.  

My Magnet engine AU 2014240249 B1 meets these requirements.

The main elements of the design in the engine, carrying out the conversion of the attractive/repulsive force in rotational motion are:

·       the rotor with multiple assemblies of magnets or flexible magnetic strips,

·       dynamic stator, made of cylinders placed in the form of a torus with helical magnetic strips on its surface, and

·       transmission for transmitting torque from the dynamic stator to the rotor's shaft.

Toroidal mechanical construction never before used in engineering though has unique properties. The uniqueness lies in the fact that in the synchronous rotation of the cylinders, forming torus, magnetic strips on their surfaces create a continuous endless magnetic pathway on the inner surface of the torus. As a result, the rotor’s magnets move under the influence of the attractive/repulsive force along this path by staying always at the same distance from the magnetic strips of the stator. Changing this distance by using a simple mechanism in the rotor, we can control the power of the engine.

This engine can alternatively use permanent magnets only or permanent magnets paired with magnetic material (steel). In the first case, we can use two modes: attractive and repulsive. Changing mode changes the direction of the rotor rotation. In the second case, we use the attractive mode only.